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Cure to be discovered ?

Ur Feeings 
 
Its time to know about one of the most dangerous disease  EBOLA


What is Ebola?
·         Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was first reported in 1976 in Democratic Republic of Congo near the Ebola river.
·         Ebola,  a rare and often fatal disease, which spreads through mucous and other body fluid or secretions such as stool, urine, saliva and semen of infected people, is believed to be very difficult to control.
·         Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a highly infectious disease caused by the Ebola virus and cause internal and external bleeding.
·         It is transmitted through direct contact with the infected person and it is not an airborne virus.
·         The Ebola outbreak is, by far the largest in the nearly 40-year history of the disease.
·         It has death rate of 90 per cent.

How many lives Ebola has claimed this year?
·         According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), the scale of the ongoing outbreak is unprecedented, with approximately 1, 711 confirmed infections and suspected cases reported, and 932 deaths have been recorded in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone since March.
·         The UN organisation on Wednesday said currently there was no registered medicine or vaccine against the virus, but there were several experimental options under development.
·         On Monday, the World Bank said it will provide $200 million in emergency funding to help the three west African countries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone to contain the worsening Ebola outbreak in the region.

Should Indians need to fear from Ebola?
·         Indians should not think that they are far from the reach of Ebola virus and are safe as there are close to 45,000 Indians living in Ebola-affected countries.
·         There are chances that Ebola outbreak may occur in India if the Indians affected from this virus plan to come back home. Unlike other infectious diseases which originate from rural areas, the Ebola outbreak originated from urban areas.
·         On Wednesday, Union Health Minister Dr Harsh Vardhan said, "All precautions are being taken by us. While the risk of Ebola virus cases in India is low, preparedness measures are in place to deal with any case of the virus imported to India. There would be designated facilities at the relevant airports/ports to manage travellers manifesting symptoms of the disease. The surveillance system would be geared up to track these travellers for four weeks and to detect them early, in case they develop symptoms."
·         Vardhan also said that the risk of transmission of the virus to countries outside African region is "low" but "we would obtain details of travellers originating or transiting through affected countries to India and tracking these persons after their arrival up to their final destination".
·         Sadly, there has been no major breakthrough in curing this deadly disease. So, there is a need to be aware from its consequences.

Early signs and Symptoms of Ebola
·         Ebola symptoms typically start showing two to three days after contracting the virus, with onset of fever, sore throat, muscle and joint pain, headache, stomach ache and lack of appetite.
·         Early signs visible in 4-5 days
·         First three days- Extreme weakness, lethargy and tiredness
·         4th to 7th day- Headache, vomiting, anemia, diarrhea
·         7th to 10th day- Severe symptoms like bleeding from eyes, ears, nose and jaws
How does Ebola virus attack?
·         The moment it enters into someone's body, it goes into the body cells and multiply itself.
·         Then, it produces a kind of protein, that proves dangerous to the body.
·         Affects the immune system. It enters into liver, kidneys and brain and damages the immune system.
·         Causes levels of blood-clotting cells to drop.

Prevention and control
     Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe burials and social mobilisation. Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks. 
     Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission. Risk reduction messaging should focus on several factors:
Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human transmission from contact with infected fruit bats or monkeys/apes and the consumption of their raw meat.       Animals should be handled with gloves and other appropriate protective clothing. Animal products (blood and meat) should be thoroughly cooked before consumption.
      Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission from direct or close contact with people with Ebola symptoms, particularly with their bodily fluids. Gloves and appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill patients at home. Regular hand washing is required after visiting patients in hospital, as well as after taking care of patients at home.
      Outbreak containment measures including prompt and safe burial of the dead, identifying people who may have been in contact with someone infected with Ebola, monitoring the health of contacts for 21 days, the importance of separating the healthy from the sick to prevent further spread, the importance of good hygiene and maintaining a clean environment.

Controlling infection in health-care settings:
     Health-care workers should always take standard precautions when caring for patients, regardless of their presumed diagnosis. These include basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (to block splashes or other contact with infected materials), safe injection practices and safe burial practices.
     Health-care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should apply extra infection control measures to prevent contact with the patient’s blood and body fluids and contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothing and bedding. When in close contact (within 1 metre) of patients with EBV, health-care workers should wear face protection (a face shield or a medical mask and goggles), a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown, and gloves (sterile gloves for some procedures).
Laboratory workers are also at risk. Samples taken from humans and animals for investigation of Ebola infection should be handled by trained staff and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.
 

Table: Chronology of previous Ebola virus disease outbreaks


Year
Country
Ebolavirus species
Cases
Deaths
Case fatality

2012
Democratic Republic of Congo
Bundibugyo
57
29
51%

2012
Uganda
Sudan
7
4
57%

2012
Uganda
Sudan
24
17
71%

2011
Uganda
Sudan
1
1
100%

2008
Democratic Republic of Congo
Zaire
32
14
44%

2007
Uganda
Bundibugyo
149
37
25%

2007
Democratic Republic of Congo
Zaire
264
187
71%

2005
Congo
Zaire
12
10
83%

2004
Sudan
Sudan
17
7
41%

2003 (Nov-Dec)
Congo
Zaire
35
29
83%
2003 (Jan-Apr)
Congo
Zaire
143
128
90%
2001-2002
Congo
Zaire
59
44
75%

2001-2002
Gabon
Zaire
65
53
82%

2000
Uganda
Sudan
425
224
53%

1996
South Africa (ex-Gabon)
Zaire
1
1
100%

1996 (Jul-Dec)
Gabon
Zaire
60
45
75%
1996 (Jan-Apr)
Gabon
Zaire
31
21
68%
1995
Democratic Republic of Congo
Zaire
315
254
81%

1994
Cote d'Ivoire
Taï Forest
1
0
0%

1994
Gabon
Zaire
52
31
60%

1979
Sudan
Sudan
34
22
65%

1977
Democratic Republic of Congo
Zaire
1
1
100%

1976
Sudan
Sudan
284
151
53%

1976
Democratic Republic of Congo
Zaire
318
280
88%

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